The Mona Lisa Mystery: Who is Mona Lisa, and Why is It the World’s Most Famous Painting?


The Art Heist

On 21st August 1911, it was a Monday morning in the French capital, Paris. It was quite bustling. People were going to work in their offices when suddenly, three men came out of the Louvre museum. The three had spent the previous night in the museum. And now, they were carrying an important property of the Louvre Museum. that was hidden in a blanket while they tried to escape. They went to a nearby railway station and caught the train at 8.45 in the morning and disappeared. The whole world was unaware of the fact that they had stolen a painting. Not an insignificant painting. The world’s most famous painting. The Mona Lisa. Today, the value of this painting is close to $1 billion. What is the reason behind this? What are the secrets hidden in the Mona Lisa? Why is this the most famous painting in the world? Let’s understand the mystery of the Mona Lisa.

The Origin of the Enigma

Mona Lisa was painted in 1503 by an Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci. And this man was so amazing, that you won’t even believe it. Not only was he a painter, but also an engineer, scientist, sculptor, architect, and theorist. He had knowledge of so many subjects be it painting, cartography, astronomy, anatomy, botany, hydrology, geology, optics, or even palaeontology.

Leonardo da Vinci’s Masterpiece: Unraveling the Secrets of the Mona Lisa

 let’s get to Mona Lisa. Which was his most famous painting. But who was this person in the painting? People have always been curious about the identity of the woman in the painting. The first revelation about this was made by an Italian artist named Giorgio Vasari, who wrote the autobiography of Leonardo da Vinci in 1550. According to Vasari, this woman was Lisa Gherardini. She was married to a silk trader who lived in Florence, Francesco Giocondo. He believed that Francesco had commissioned this painting of his wife and that’s the origin of the names of this painting. The first name that we all know, Mona Lisa, derived from Madonna Lisa. Traditionally, in Italian, the word Madonna was used to mean Madam. So, Madonna Lisa meant Madam Lisa. The word Madonna was later shortened to Monna. Monna with a double N. When this was written in English an N was dropped and Monna became Mona. So Mona Lisa means Madam Lisa or Lady Lisa. And then comes Mona Lisa’s other name which is La Gioconda. After her marriage, Lisa Gherardini became Lisa Giocondo. Interestingly, in Italian, Giocondo means light-hearted or cheerful. Meaning, bright and joyful. And today, Mona Lisa is very famous for her smile. So that’s where it got its name, La Giocondo. In French, the word Giocondo is written with a J, like this, Joconde. So that’s why when you go to the Louvre Museum in Paris and see the painting of Mona Lisa, in French, it would be identified as La Joconde.

From Italy to France: The Odyssey of the Mona Lisa

 Now, the interesting thing is that in 1550, despite this revelation, people were not ready to believe that Vasari’s narrative was correct. Many theories started to emerge about this woman being someone else. Some people said that she was Leonardo da Vinci’s mother. Some said that this was a painting of a queen from the Italian aristocracy. The most interesting theory was that in this painting, da Vinci painted himself. That this painting is not of a woman. but in fact a self-portrait of Da Vinci. Where he imagined how he would have looked had he been a woman. This theory was promoted by artist Lilian Schwartz in an article in 1987. She used digital tools to try to show similarities between Leonardo Da Vinci’s face and Mona Lisa’s image. With this logic, any two faces can be seen as similar by placing them on top of each other. But today, we can say with a lot of certainty that the woman painted here is indeed Lisa Giocondo. A professor living in Florence researched this for 25 years and found the archives and in 2004, he discovered clear evidence to prove this fact. He also found that the da Vinci family had a close relationship with Francesco Giocondo’s family. He also found a record that Lisa’s marriage was registered on 5th March 1495 when Lisa was 16 years old and Francesco was around 30 years old. He found that Leonardo da Vinci’s father and Lisa’s husband knew each other very well. And it’s possible that this painting was commissioned not by Lisa’s husband, but by Leonardo’s father. Pallanti says that when the Mona Lisa was painted, Lisa was 24 years old. And that there might have been two reasons for painting this. The first reason is that in 1503, when Francesco and Lisa bought their home, or the second reason is that in December 1502, when their second son was born. The second reason seems more probable because three years before this, in 1499, Lisa lost her daughter.

The Making of an Icon: Understanding the Unique Features of the Mona Lisa

 If you look at this painting closely, you will see a veil over Lisa’s hair. Many people call it a mourning veil. It is a veil that is worn when someone in the family has passed away. Now, one question arises here if Da Vinci was Italian, Mona Lisa was Italian, then why is this painting in France today? Well, the thing about this is that in the year 1516, the king of France, King Francis I, invited Leonardo da Vinci to live in France. And so, da Vinci moved from Italy to France. And took with him the Mona Lisa. Historical records aren’t clear about this, but it’s believed that da Vinci hadn’t completed the painting yet. 15 years after starting the painting, he was still working on this painting, trying to modify it and make it better. Meanwhile, in the year 1519, Leonardo da Vinci passed away during his stay in the French palace. And the king kept this painting as a part of his Royal Collection. About 150 years, in 1797, when the French Revolution happened, this painting was taken out of the palace and handed over to the Louvre Museum.

Why Mona lisa was stolen

 The interesting thing is that this is the reason why the Mona Lisa was stolen in 1911. The mastermind of this theft was Vincenzo Peruggia. He stole this painting together with his two friends. He was an Italian Nationalist. He believed that this painting belonged to Italy. Not in France. And so after stealing it, they took it to Italy. Stealing such a famous painting was a risky job especially when the value of the painting was in millions of dollars. let’s know the speciality of this painting. Why is it so special? First of all, the Mona Lisa was not painted on paper, canvas or cloth. Instead, it was painted on poplar wood. In those days, it was the favourite wood of Italian painters. Secondly, this painting isn’t large.  This is where it hangs in the museum. This painting is only 77 cm by 53 cm. But still, it is considered so special because, in its time, in Italy, this was the first painting which focused so closely on the person. This is a half-length portrait. These types of shots are very common in photography today. But no one used to make such paintings in those days. If you look at the overall colour grading of this painting, you will see a lot of brown and yellow shades. It looks like a very dull painting. It is so yellowish that at one point, a professor declared Lisa a cholesterol patient. But there are two reasons behind this. First, a varnish layer has been applied to this painting so that moisture does not affect the painting badly. It looks like a dull painting. It is so yellowish that once a professor had declared Lisa to be a patient with high cholesterol. But there are two reasons for this. First, there is a layer of varnish on top of this painting. So that there are no ill-effects of moisture on this painting, since it was painted on wood. So it’s necessary to protect it from humidity and moisture. And secondly, over time, there was bleaching. Originally, when this was painted, it used to be more bright and colourful. Some people tried to recreate this painting to see how it would have looked originally.

Deciphering Mona Lisa’s Smile: Leonardo da Vinci’s Artistic Mastery and Scientific Curiosity

Da Vinci used a very special painting style in this painting, known as Sfumato. The technique of blending. The background you see in this painting is a landscape. It is the Arno Valley in Italy. There are no clear boundaries or outlines between the background and Mona Lisa. In some places, Mona Lisa’s hair is blended with the landscape. Blurring the outlines and blending the colours is the technique of Sfumato. This is the secret behind Mona Lisa’s mysterious smile. Look at Mona Lisa’s smile carefully. The more you look at this smile, the more serious this face will look. But now look into Mona Lisa’s eyes. Suddenly, you will see Lisa smiling more. If you look at any part of the painting, be it the background, Mona Lisa’s forehead or her eyes, you will see the effect. Lisa’s face starts smiling more when you don’t focus on the smile. To perfect this smile, da Vinci spent the most time. He spent many nights in a hospital in Florence, where he used to go and remove the skin of dead bodies. He wanted to study the facial muscles and nerves and how they work together to create a smile. He wrote in his book that “the muscles which move the lips are more numerous in man than in any other animal.” It was very difficult for him to dissect the muscles of the lips because the muscles here are tiny and numerous. During this experiment, da Vinci studied horses as well. He compared human expressions to that of horses. In the notes, he wrote, “Notice whether the muscle that raises the nostrils of the horse is the same as that which lies here in man.” Hardly, throughout history, any other artist has dissected the faces of a horse and a human and done these experiments. His obsession with Mona Lisa’s smile didn’t end here. After this, he did research on optics as well. He found that the light rays don’t merge together into a single point on our eyes, rather they spread out over the entire retina. The centre of the retina, known as the Fovea, helps us see the finest details. On the other hand, the rest of the retina picks up shadows and black-and-white imagery more. Using this knowledge, he focused on the shadows in such a way that even when you see the Mona Lisa in your peripheral vision, as in, if you are looking this way and Mona Lisa is on the other side, even if you are not paying attention to Mona Lisa, the effect of her smile is still there. When you look at her smile closely, you will see that its central line is a flat line, is why when you look at her smile, it looks like she is not smiling at all. But on the other hand, the shadows created using the Sfumato technique, have such an effect that when you look elsewhere, your peripheral vision sees that smile and its shadows are reflected. And then you feel that Lisa is smiling.

A Tale of Two Paintings

How would it feel if I told you that the Mona Lisa is not one painting, rather two paintings. This is not a conspiracy theory, it’s the truth. Mona Lisa’s painting, as we know, a similar painting was created at the same time. The story of this second Mona Lisa began in the year 1504 when another legendary artist named Raphael made a rough sketch using pen and ink. This sketch looked something like this and if you compare it with the Mona Lisa in Louvre, you can see a huge difference. In this sketch by Raphael, you can see two columns behind Mona Lisa. Here, the researchers believed that Raphael must have made his drawing based on the Mona Lisa painting. So, it was initially brushed off. But this theory was disproved by a German art historian in 1993. And Professor Pallanti, whom I had mentioned earlier, who had been researching the identity of the Mona Lisa for 25 years, confirmed that Raphael actually lived right in front of the Giocondo family in Florence. So, does this mean that Raphael made an original painting on the same subject, with the same woman in the same pose? This seems quite unbelievable. Another answer to this question could be that another Mona Lisa painting exists which inspired Raphael to make this drawing. And this second Mona Lisa painting was revealed to the world in 1914. A novelist living near London, John R. Eyer, had a new version of the Mona Lisa. This is the new Mona Lisa painting. The same painting based on which Raphael made his drawing. This second Mona Lisa is 3.5 inches longer and 5 inches wider than the one in the Louvre. If you compare these two paintings, you will notice three things. First, the woman in this new Mona Lisa looks much younger. Second, the head in this new painting is tilted a little forward. And third, the expressions of this new Mona Lisa are very straightforward and clear. There is nothing mysterious about her smile that is in the Mona Lisa in Louvre. The two columns in the background are the ones seen in Raphael’s drawing. Due to these reasons, a new theory is coined by the experts. That Leonardo da Vinci was actually working on two Mona Lisas. Leonardo da Vinci painted both these Mona Lisa. But the Isleworth Mona Lisa that was later discovered was the first version of da Vinci’s painting. He was experimenting with his style then. And this is why the Mona Lisa in that painting looks younger than the other Mona Lisa. This theory remains a topic of debate to date. In 2010, the Mona Lisa Foundation started an investigation on the Isleworth Mona Lisa to find out the secret behind it. And they came up with another theory. They said that the face and hands of this new Mona Lisa were indeed painted by da Vinci. But the background was painted by an inferior artist. Perhaps, a person working in Leonardo’s workshop had finished this painting. Both these theories remain mere theories because no solid evidence has been found on either side. Coming back to the theft of the Mona Lisa, it was found that the mastermind of this theft, Vincenzo Peruggia, was an employee in the Louvre Museum. One day, he hid in some corner in the museum and spent the night there after which, the next morning, he walked out with the painting. He believed that since Leonardo da Vinci was an Italian, this painting should be in an Italian museum. When the news of the theft spread, it made headlines all over the world. Scores of detectives were put to work to look for the thief. But no one could find him. For two years, Peruggia hid this painting at his home. He wondered what he could do with it. The whole world was looking for it. Finally, he became impatient and tried to sell the painting. He tried to sell this painting to an art dealer in Florence To Giovanni Poggi. Giovanni became suspicious and saw the stamp on the painting to confirm that it was the stolen painting. He was being sold the most wanted item in the world. Because of this, Vincenzo was caught and was sentenced to 6 months’ imprisonment. The painting was sent back to the Louvre Museum and was hung up on 4th January, 1914. Today, this painting is displayed there, behind bulletproof glass, in strict climate-controlled conditions where humidity is maintained at 50% +/- 10%, temperature is strictly maintained at 18°C to 21°C. Perhaps the most interesting part in this story is that only after this theft did Mona Lisa’s popularity start increasing. And it became the world’s #1 famous painting. That’s right. Before the theft, the Mona Lisa was not very famous. People who were interested in art, knew about the Mona Lisa but the common folks did not know about the Mona Lisa.


How Korea became a Cultural Superpower? | evolution of Korean dramas, Case Study | BTS | Squid Games 

Emergence of the Asian Tigers

Over the past 70 years, in East Asia, the fastest-growing developed economies are referred to as the ‘Asian Tigers’. The four Asian Tigers are Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and South Korea. Among them, South Korea stands out not just as an economically developed nation but also as a cultural superpower. South Korea’s iconic “Gangnam Style” song became the first YouTube video to surpass 1 billion views. The TV show “Squid Game,” originating from South Korea, is one of the most watched TV shows globally. Even YouTube sensation Mr Beast’s most popular video is about Squid Game. Additionally, South Korean bands like BTS and Blackpink are achieving international fame, K-Dramas are becoming more and more popular, and South Korean movies such as “Oldboy” and “Parasite” receive acclaim and prestigious awards globally. Notably, “Parasite” made history as the first non-English film to win an Oscar for the Best Film.  How is this happening? Is it merely a stroke of luck that South Korean content and products are gaining immense popularity worldwide, or is it the result of a well-thought-out strategy by the South Korean government?  let’s try to understand,

South Korea’s Evolution: From Struggle to Prosperity

How did South Korea become a Cultural Superpower? Let’s start our story from August 15, 1945, a pivotal day when Japan officially surrendered, marking the end of World War II. While Germany, Italy, and Japan faced significant defeats, Korea, previously under Japanese rule, gained its freedom.

Cultural Repression and Evolution

This is why 15th August, is known as National Liberation Day in both North and South Korea, Back then, North and South Korea were not separate entities but one unified country, Korea. The division occurred after World War II, when the Soviet Union and the United States agreed to split Korea into two parts. Southern Korea, under U.S. command, and northern Korea, under Soviet command, The plan was to put North and South Korea under trusteeship for a period of 5 years to assess Korea’s progress and determine their future. The ultimate plan was to reunite Korea as an independent nation after 5 years. Unfortunately, it didn’t happen. Tensions escalated between the United States and the Soviet Union, marking the beginning of the Cold War. In 1948, the United Nations attempted to conduct supervised elections in North Korea but that proved unfeasible. Meanwhile, elections proceeded in the U.S.-controlled South Korea, and a new Constitution was adopted. And so, on August 15, 1948 the Republic of Korea was born. A new, liberal, democratic nation. “Our General of the Army Douglas MacArthur and Mrs MacArthur, to attend ceremonies formally proclaiming the end of the US military government in Korea, and the formation of the free and independent Korean Republic.” The next month, North Korea was declared a communist country under a dictatorship. 2 years later, in 1950, North Korea attempted to reunify the two Koreas not through a peaceful treaty, but through invasion into South Korea. This sparked a war. A conflict that persisted for three years. The Korean War. “In Korea, United Nations’ troops push on in the cautious advance against the communists.” Consequently, South Korea became one of the poorest nations in the world. The country was so poor at the time that its GDP per capita falls below that of present-day Somalia and Haiti, both among the world’s poorest nations today. This dire poverty takes a toll on democracy, leading South Korean President Rhee Syngman to adopt an authoritarian stance. He introduced constitutional amendments and the country shifted towards dictatorship. Elections were conducted in 1960, but later, it was revealed that they were rigged. Triggering nationwide protests. President Rhee fled the country due to the protests, prompting new elections. A new South Korean prime minister was elected in these elections. However, a military coup unfolded soon after, with General Park Chung-Hee overthrowing the government and establishing military dictatorship. Although he was assassinated in 1979, there was another military coup, in which another general came to power.

Governmental Strategy for Cultural Export

It was only in 1987-88 that a revival of democracy took place in South Korea. The prolonged era of dictatorships left a lasting impact on South Korean culture, censorship. In 1962, Park Chung Hee introduced a Motion Picture Law, which underwent four revisions in the following decade, each time becoming more stringent. During that time, films released in South Korea had to undergo a government approval process for their scripts. And once the film was made, these films were scrutinized to ensure they aligned with the approved government script. Which films would be allowed by the government? Violent films were allowed, many martial arts films were released during this time in South Korea, melodramas were allowed, and propaganda films were obviously allowed, which were often financed by the government. Even films with explicit content were allowed. They were known as ‘hostess films’ and featured at least one character playing the role of a prostitute or a bar girl. But what wasn’t allowed? Making films addressing real socio-political issues. Far from films criticizing the government, any film addressing any issue in the country wasn’t allowed. A sharp contrast to the present-day Korea. Today, Korean content landscape is diverse and thriving. Icons like Gangnam Style, BTS, and Squid Game have achieved global recognition. If you don’t believe me, you can check it out Amazon Mini TV, it has a plethora of Korean content on it. The top 5 Korean shows include Cheer Up, Warm Meet You, Weightlifting Fairy Kim Buk-Joo, She Was Pretty, and Tempted. Among them, the show Cheer Up stands out to me, it’s about friendship, life, dreams, and passion it is an inspiring story of an underdog that resonates with many. When watching foreign language content one problem is, you can’t understand the language. But Amazon Mini TV provides Hindi dubs, and Tamil and Telugu dubs for select shows. This allows viewers to enjoy content from around the world in their preferred language, providing a unique opportunity to explore diverse cultures. The Amazon Mini TV app is easily downloadable from the Play Store, and you don’t need a subscription to watch any shows. The platform is ad-supported, enabling users to enjoy all content for free, and the best part is that there are new additions every week. You can find the link to download Amazon Mini TV in the description below. I want to thank them for sponsoring this video. Now, let’s return to our main topic. During the period of dictatorship, South Korea implemented a ban on foreign songs, as reported by the New York Times in 1975. South Korea Banned ‘Decadent’ Foreign Music The ban covered every foreign song that didn’t have a ‘moral standard’, leading to the creation of two extensive blacklists comprising over 260 songs. This included protest songs, rock songs, folk songs, and even iconic works like Bob Dylan’s legendary ‘Blowing in the Wind.’ The restrictions persisted until the 1990s when democracy was restored, marking a turning point. In 1993, the Hollywood film Jurassic Park gained immense popularity globally, generating substantial revenue at the box office. The South Korean Presidential Advisory Board on Science and Technology submitted a report to the South Korean President highlighting the Hollywood film’s financial success, equating it to the revenue from selling 1.5 million Hyundai cars. After this, the government decided to promote media production as a strategic industry. That same year, a Korean film, Seo Pyeon Je, was released in Korean cinemas. People weren’t expecting much from this film at this point in time. Because only Hollywood films were hits on the South Korean box office. But this film was based on traditional folk story telling. This film was so loved by the masses that this became the first Korean film to sell over 1 million tickets, solely in Seoul, the South Korean capital. This success prompted the government to recognise the potential of the media industry. They decided to turn Korean culture into a global export and took proactive measures to facilitate its growth. To understand this focus on exports, it’s essential to consider the Korean economy. Between 1962 and 1989, the nominal GDP per capita of South Korea increased fiftyfold, from $104 in 1962 to $5,438 in 1989. General Park nationalized numerous private banks across the country, due to the dictatorship, Park controlled almost everything, overseeing aspects such as interest rates, tax benefits, foreign exchange allocation, and import/export licenses, Park controlled everything. General Park used his control to promote the Chaebols, which is a Korean term for large family businesses. These entities were shielded from foreign competition, and the government permitted them to exploit labour within the country. If you’d recall my case study on Singapore, where I discussed how Singapore became so developed, in case you haven’t watched it, the link to that video is in the description. The problems faced by Singapore back then were similar to the challenges faced by South Korea. Small nations, grappling with small domestic markets, limited domestic savings due to poverty, and a lack of natural resources, this meant that if the country wanted to grow, it had to focus on exports. Export-oriented industrialization. Like Singapore, South Korea focused on this too. It placed various manufactured goods like wigs, stuffed toys, shipbuilding, automobiles, home electronics, products, chemicals, and semiconductors, on its export list, aiming to propel growth by exporting these products worldwide. While trying to export all it could, the government decided to export the Korean culture too. This is why, in 1994, the South Korean government established the Cultural Industry Bureau. The outdated motion picture law was replaced with a new Film Promotion Law in 1996. Unlike the previous law, which imposed restrictions on film content, the new law encouraged filmmakers and artists to express themselves freely. In the meanwhile, a media policy report was submitted to the government addressing concerns about individuals and small businesses competing with large multinational foreign companies. Notably, major corporations like Samsung, Hyundai, and Daewoo, started expanding into the media industry. These companies took on various roles in the domestic film production, foreign film import, distribution, and exhibition. These chaebols were involved in everything. Since these companies did not lack the financial strength, it allowed for proper film production for the first time in South Korea. Market research was conducted to understand audience preferences, and film companies hired the expertise of MBAs and graduates from prestigious universities. With support from Chaebols, big-budget blockbuster films were made. Like this film, Shiri. The first Hollywood-style, big-budget, blockbuster film of the Korean film industry. This melodramatic action film adopted Hollywood storytelling techniques while maintaining distinctly Korean content. Samsung produced this film on a budget of 2.4 billion won, and the year it was released, it outperformed the blockbuster Titanic in South Korea, becoming the highest-grossing film in Korea at the time. The success of such films sparked increased interest among Koreans for watching local cinema. Film production companies were encouraged to showcase their films internationally. However, in 1997, a severe financial crisis hit South Korea. “The global markets worried that other Asian countries might have similar hidden floors.” The Asian Financial Crisis, three of the most affected countries were Thailand, Indonesia, and South Korea. The IMF stepped in to assist, while imposing several conditions. For this economic crisis in South Korea, Chaebols and crony capitalism were held responsible. The economic crisis revealed illegal insider trading, tax evasion, and indirect cross-ownership practices. The IMF told the South Korean government that they needed to address these problems before getting IMF’s help. In response, the South Korean government introduced 8 new rules regarding Chaebols. One key rule stipulated that these large family-owned businesses shouldn’t be allowed to enter all sectors and should focus solely on their core sectors. This is why companies like Samsung and Hyundai aren’t still in the film production business. Due to the new rules, the chaebols withdrew from film production business. Paving the way for new, younger entrants. While the financial crisis had a detrimental impact on the Korean economy it also affected the international perception of Korea. Korean President Kim Dae-Jung recognized the potential of culture not only for economic recovery but also for rebranding the country. Kim Dae-Jung is highly respected in South Korea even now, often referred to as the ‘Culture President,’ It was because of him and his successor Roh Moo-Hyun, that a cultural revolution began in South Korea. Interestingly, Kim Dae-Jung is the sole Korean Nobel Prize winner. How did he usher in these changes? Firstly, fund allocation. In 1999, Kim established the Basic Laws for the Cultural Industry Promotion Project, he allocated $148.5 million for its implementation. A dedicated department was formed in the Ministry of Culture, focusing on Korean Pop Music. Secondly, infrastructure development with the construction of multimillion-dollar concert auditoriums, Culture Industry Departments were formed in universities nationwide, and Noraebangs popping up all over the country. Noraebangs are basically karaoke bars where people could enjoy singing and drinking. Thirdly, the Digital Korea initiative. Many people believe that the surge in popularity of Korean TV shows and films is because during the pandemic people were stuck at home looking for new content on YouTube and OTT platforms. And so everyone just happened to start watching Korean content. But actually, Kim Dae-Jung had laid the groundwork much earlier. In 1998, broadband services were introduced for South Korean households, and broadband connections were promoted so much that by 2004, almost 12 million households had broadband connections, earning Korea the title of the world’s most wired nation. Fourthly, the removal of censorship.

Cultural Renaissance under Kim Dae-Jung

Kim Dae-Jung relaxed all censorship laws. Previously, as I had said, anyone making serious films addressing national socio-economic issues risked being labelled anti-national, they could be accused of promoting the enemy state North Korea, and under the National Security Act, filmmakers could face arrest. But Kim embraced artistic and creative freedom, he abolished the board review process, and introduced an American-style age rating system. This allowed filmmakers to openly portray the challenges faced by common people. This is why films like Parasite, gained immense popularity worldwide. Parasite won the Best Film Award at the Cannes Film Festival and became the first non-English film to win an Oscar for the Best Film. What was this film about? South Korea’s extreme inequality. The social divide between the poor and rich in Korea, was presented to the world. No one accused director Bong Joon-Ho of insulting the nation. Of exploiting the country’s poverty on the global stage. In fact, South Korean President Moon Jae-In praised the film, describing it as the most Korean story. Within Korea, people celebrated the film’s global success, and a major reason for its popularity is that the real issues portrayed in the film are not unique to Korea; people all over the world could relate to these, poverty, unemployment, crime, and gender discrimination. These issues aren’t Korea specific. These are evident in other countries as well. They resonate with people worldwide on an emotional level. Reflecting on the 1990s, there emerged a generation in Korea known as the 386 generation, individuals born in the 1960s who were politically active in the democracy movement of the 1980s. By the early 1990s, this generation, now in their 30s, became the first to have the opportunity to travel abroad. That’s right. Until then, foreign travel for Koreans was restricted. Citizens were banned from going on foreign trips for tourism. This was because the government was concerned about depleting foreign currency.

Korean Wave: K-Drama and K-Pop Phenomenon

As the economy improved and liberalization took place, these restrictions were lifted, allowing the 386 generation to travel abroad. to study in foreign film schools, and gain new perspectives on life and filmmaking while travelling. Many from this generation went on to become renowned film directors, left-leaning directors who focused on making films on significant social issues. Such as Bong Joon-Ho and Kim Ki-Duk, are notable examples. I talked about Bong Joon-Ho’s film Parasite, other remarkable films by him are Okja and Snowpiercer, These are also critical commentaries on capitalism. On the other hand, Kim Ki-Duk’s film Pieta, depicts the story of a heartless loan recovery agent, it won the Golden Lion for Best Film at the Venice Film Festival. The most popular Korean film internationally back then was Oldboy by Park Chan-Wook. A violent and dark revenge drama, that was unofficially remade in India called Zinda. Hollywood officially remade the film ‘Oldboy,’ maintaining the same title. At one point, dark thrillers were the most popular genre in Korea, the Bollywood film Ek Villain was inspired by the Korean film ‘I Saw The Devil.’ Bollywood film ‘Murder 2’ copied the Korean movie ‘The Chaser,’ while ‘The Outlaws’ were copied as ‘Radhe’ and ‘Most Wanted Bhai.’ The Korean film industry didn’t want to be stereotyped as producing dark thrillers only, so the Korean film industry introduced a variety of romantic and comedy blockbusters, including ‘Il Mare’ released in 2000, it was the first Korean film to be remade in Hollywood as ‘The Lake House.’ In the realm of dramas, the first successful Korean drama was ‘What is Love,’ it marked a milestone by becoming the first TV show officially exported to China, airing on China Central Television in 1997. Many consider this the initial indication of Hallyu, Hallyu means the Korean wave, this Korean wave gained momentum over the decades, Hallyu was at the next level. “Hallyu, also known as The Korean Wave.” “The K-Wave” “The Korean Wave” kDrama reached its peak with ‘Squid Game’ becoming the most-watched web show on Netflix. The question arises: What makes Korean dramas so special, addictive and popular? The key factor is their emotional realism. From the emotional perspective, the stories are often realistic. Additionally, these dramas explore diverse backgrounds, whether it’s the historical Korea depicted in ‘Royal Secret Agent,’ or the world of journalism in ‘Hush,’ or the folklore fantasy in ‘Tale of the Nine-Tailed.’ Third, kDramas are visually appealing. And fourth, the creativity of writers in crafting engaging storylines. Interestingly, 94.6% of kDrama screenwriters are actually women. According to estimates from the Korean Broadcast Writers Union. Regarding music, Japanese content was initially banned in South Korea as a part of their decolonization process. However, Kim played a pivotal role in improving relations between Japan and South Korea by lifting the ban. This led to the introduction of Japanese pop songs, known as J-Pop, in South Korea. H.O.T. was one of the first-generation Korean boy bands. Their 1996 debut album ‘We Hate All Kinds of Violence’ sold 1.5 million copies. This band, formed by SM Entertainment, Before putting together this band, the founder of the company sought input from students on their idea of the ideal pop group. After this, they conducted auditions to select band members. These individuals were then extensively trained in a structured idol system, a concept initially borrowed from Japan but now K-Pop is a global phenomenon. Talent agencies often scout idol trainees through street castings or global auditions, providing comprehensive training in singing, acting, dancing, and media communication. The company then decides their stage name, stage personality, and fan interactions. Some people criticise this system and compare the music companies to factories with the trainee contracts labelled as slave contracts. However, some people defend the system because it gives everyone an opportunity to become popular based on their talent and looks. Notably, PSY’s ‘Gangnam Style’ gained popularity similarly, A Korean song with an English punchline. It had a catchy tune and an interesting dance step. Due to a combination of these reasons, the song went on to be so popular that in December 2012, this became the first YouTube video to reach 1 billion views. After this, many Korean songs have used this format. Most of the lyrics would be in Korean but the hook would be in English, This allowed the songs to appeal to the non-Korean speaking people all over the world. Today, there are bands like BTS and Blackpink. BTS, a 7-member boy band, achieved milestones such as meeting U.S. President Joe Biden at the White House, performing at the United Nations General Assembly, and having their song ‘Dynamite’ become the first K-pop song to reach 1 billion streams on Spotify. The dedicated fanbase of BTS is known as the BTS Army, you might have seen them trending on Twitter often. And Blackpink, the 4-member girl band, gained immense popularity too. Their fans call themselves the Blink Army. These gave a significant boost to the South Korean soft power. Today, South Korea is a cultural super power. that not only benefits the Korean economy but also boosts Korean tourism.


The complex legacy of Pablo Escobar: the rise and decline, part 1

Family background and early life

Pablo Escobar was born on December 1, 1949, as Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria in the city of Rionegro in the department of Antioquia in Colombia. He is known to history as Pablo Escobar. Abel de Jesus Dari Escobar Echeverri was his father. He was a poor farmer who often worked as a farmhand on other people’s plots to make money for his large family of seven children. Pablo was the third child in the family. Hermilda de Los Dolores Gaviria Berrio was Pablo’s mother. She raised their seven children and also worked as an elementary school teacher in the area.

Migration to Medellin

Even though Pablo was born in Rionegro, his family moved to Medellin when he was still very young. It is interesting to think about how this Colombian city, which Pablo would become so closely linked to, has grown over time. In the 1610s, the Spanish came to the area and started to build a village with people of different races. Over the next two hundred years, it steadily grew to the point where, when the Republic of Gran Colombia, which is now Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama, declared its independence from Spain in 1819, Medellin was already the capital of the region. It was in the northwest of Colombia, in the Aburrá Valley, next to the Andes Mountains. Latin America grew economically and population-wise in the late 1800s and early 1900s, and Medellin grew along with it. Medellin’s growth as an industrial hub caused the population to rise from about 60,000 in 1905 to over 300,000 by the time Pablo was born. It kept growing after that. When Pablo was in his early twenties, there were already more than a million people living in the city. Medellin was now the industrial capital of the country and the second largest city. He got involved in the many criminal businesses that had sprung up all over Medellin because of the city’s extreme poverty.

Involvement in gang and kicking out from school

By the time he was 14, he was in a gang and was quickly kicked out of school. He also got into a few fights with other gang members. One of these got him into a fight with Julio Tulio Garces, which he lost, but Pablo wasn’t scared. Pablo got into a fight with Julio Gaviria again, and this time he pulled out a gun and shot Gaviria in the foot. The police were called, and Pablo spent his first few nights in a Colombian prison. And while they were teenagers, he and some of his friends were involved in a number of minor crimes. In some versions of the story, they steal gravestones, sand down the fronts where the names are written, and then sell them as new. Some people think Pablo was running a business to sell fake college and high school diplomas. In these stories about his early life, it’s hard to tell the difference between what is true and what is made up.

Colombia politics

The history of Colombia in the 20th century and the growth of the drug trade there must be seen in light of Pablo Escobar’s troubled life after that. In some ways, it’s impossible to separate drugs and politics in modern Colombia. There are two main political parties in the country: Liberals and Conservatives. The United States of America has always watched and meddled in the country’s politics. In the beginning, this interventionism, which was spread throughout Latin America because of the Monroe Doctrine, which saw the Americas as a zone of US influence, was focused on allowing US access to the Isthmus of Panama. However, after Panama separated from Colombia in the early 1900s, this became less of an issue. During these decades, conservative politicians often sided with American businesses that wanted to control the trade of goods like bananas, coffee, and other things in Central and South America. The country ended up with an economy that was far behind and a lot of poor people. But not long before Pablo was born, the country was ruled by populists because the Liberal party wanted to fix the country’s economic problems and make Colombia’s wealth more evenly distributed. The political instability in Colombia today can be traced back to 1948, the year Pablo was born. That’s when the populist politician Jorge Eliécer Gaitán was killed, which caused a big rift between Colombia’s Liberals and Conservatives. After that, there was a civil war for ten years called “La Violencia,” or “The Violence,” in which more than 200,000 people were killed across the country. Eventually, the two groups agreed to work together in an uneasy way to form a National Front where each party would take turns holding power.

Gorella war between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).

This new government, with the help and encouragement of the US, started cracking down on the more left-leaning parts of Colombia’s politics, especially Leninist-Marxist Communist groups. This was done to keep Colombia from becoming an ally of Russia in the Americas, like Cuba recently did. As a result, a guerrilla war started in 1964 between the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the Colombian government. It has continued in some form or another to this day. Other paramilitary groups operating in rural areas of Colombia have also been involved in the so-called “Colombian Conflict.” Not long after, the FARC and other groups were in charge of a lot of rural Colombia. In the 1960s and early 1970s, all of this happened at the same time that the demand for illegal drugs was rising around the world, especially in the US and Europe. At first, marijuana was the drug of choice, but as time went on, cocaine, the powder made from the leaves of the coca plant, became the drug of choice because it was easier to transport and make more money from. Colombia has the perfect conditions for growing coca plants. The country’s vast rural jungles and rising crime rates in the 1960s made it the world’s centre for cocaine production very quickly. Even though groups like the FARC weren’t directly involved in growing and exporting cocaine at first, they did allow these activities to happen in the areas of Colombia they controlled, and they also taxed the people who made the drugs. This gave them money that they needed to keep fighting the government in a civil war by buying weapons and other supplies. A long time later, the FARC and other groups would even start making their own. Because of this, the political situation in Colombia in the second half of the 20th century cannot be separated from the production of cocaine during Pablo’s rise to power and at his peak.

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Chicken or egg: What came first? 

We continue to be fascinated by a riddle that has been around for centuries: which came first, the chicken or the egg? This fascinating conundrum reveals previously hidden layers of evolutionary history. It begs the question: from which egg did the first chicken emerge? If we are to assert that the chicken came first, then this raises the question. If, on the other hand, we propose that the egg comes before the chicken, then this raises the question of which chicken laid the egg in the first place. The contentious classification of eggs as either vegetarian or non-vegetarian is another interesting topic that is discussed in this mysterious debate. Let’s get started on a comprehensive investigation to figure out how to make sense of these enigmas.

The origin

The events of the story take place approximately 150 million years ago, when dinosaurs established their dominance over the planet. In the midst of this prehistoric period, which was characterised by a wide variety of dinosaur species, the journey of evolution of birds began. It was during this period of time that the first birds of the avian species took to the air. As opposed to following a linear path, evolution has diverged in a number of different directions. There were dinosaurs that shrunk and evolved into avian creatures, beginning the lineage of modern-day birds such as chickens. While some dinosaurs evolved into formidable predators such as the T-Rex, others shrunk and evolved into avian creatures. Particularly noteworthy is the evolutionary connection that exists between modern chickens and their formidable ancestors, such as the T-Rex. This connection exemplifies the various paths that evolution can take.

Egg Origins: A Prehistoric Timeline

Despite the fact that birds did not come into existence until much later, dinosaurs were already capable of laying eggs. Dinosaurs laid eggs that were comparable to those that are being laid by modern birds such as chickens and ostriches. This occurred even before the evolution of birds. Eggs are thought to have originated approximately 375 million years ago, when they were laid by an amphibious creature known as Tiktaalik Roseae for the first time. These ancient eggs, which were not like the chicken eggs that are used today, could be compared to fish eggs because they did not have a hard shell around them.

In the vicinity of 300 million years ago, eggs underwent a transformation that resulted in their current form, which is characterised by a tough outer shell similar to that of ordinary chicken eggs. To put this into perspective, the evolution of chickens in their current form occurred only 3,500 years ago. This is a striking contrast to the current state of affairs. Over the course of evolution, eggs have been around for millions of years before the chicken as we know it came into existence. This stark divergence in timelines highlights the entire evolutionary journey.

The Tale of Domestication

In Southeast Asia, around the year 1500 B.C., the cultivation of rice and millet brought about a change in the relationship between humans and a wild fowl that was a precursor to the chicken. This is known as the red jungle fowl. This wild bird, which resembled chickens in appearance but lived in jungle environments, gradually became domesticated over time. Its appearance was comparable to that of modern chickens. Over the course of millennia, human interaction and selective breeding had the effect of transforming this ancestor into the domestic chicken that we are familiar with today. It is remarkable that its remote ancestor, the species of jungle fowl known as Gallus Gallus, continues to flourish in the jungles of Southeast Asia, despite being subtly different from its domesticated counterpart.

This evolution reaffirms the significant time gap that exists between the two species: eggs have a lineage that dates back 300 million years, whereas chickens, in their current form, evolved only 3,500 years ago.

Unlocking the Mystery of the Chicken-Egg Paradox

The mystery of which came first, the chicken or its egg, is revealed in a sequence that sheds light on the stages of evolution. The modern chicken, which originated from the red jungle fowl, can trace its origins back to an ancestor that was similar to the proto-chicken. At a crucial point in their history, genetic mutations that occurred during reproduction resulted in the birth of the first true red jungle fowl from an egg. This event laid the groundwork for the first chicken to come into existence. Following that, the production of eggs by these evolved species led to the continuation of the chicken lineage through successive generations.

An unclear distinction is drawn by human classification, and the demarcation between what constitutes a “chicken” and its ancestral lineage brings this distinction into focus. The forces that drive evolution, which were previously investigated in the series on evolution, shed light on this constantly occurring transformation.

Gradual Evolution: An Intricate Journey

Within the context of this evolutionary narrative, the idea that there was a particular date that marked the birth of the first chicken is cast aside. On the contrary, it depicts a gradual progression, a continuum that is traversed through stages, generations, and incremental transformations. The idea of artificial selection, which is a topic that needs to be investigated further, sheds light on this gradual evolution.

Classifying Eggs: Vegetarian or Non-Vegetarian

Whether eggs are considered vegetarian or non-vegetarian, the classification of eggs reveals a complicated understanding. Eggs can be broken down into two primary categories: unfertilized haploid eggs, which are incapable of hatching, and fertilised diploid eggs, which are the result of mating and have the potential to hatch chicks. Embryogenesis, which is a process that occurs in some plant and animal species, allows for the development of embryos without the need for fertilisation. On the other hand, unfertilized eggs are not capable of hatching and are primarily consumed by chickens because they are not fertilised. This classification, which was upheld by the Supreme Court, considers these eggs to be vegetarian, devoid of life, and comparable to milk. This classification was based on the opinion of Mahatma Gandhi.

The Nutritional Bounty of Eggs

Eggs contain a wide variety of essential nutrients, such as protein, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, which contribute to their nutritional value. It is because of this nutritional bounty that eggs are considered to be a very beneficial addition to one’s diet. Egg consumption is being advocated by the government as a means of combating malnutrition, which highlights the nutritional significance of eggs.

Human Intervention and Artificial Selection

Resonating in the evolution of cultivated plants and animals is the juxtaposition of natural and artificial selection, which manifests itself across a wide range of domains. Through the use of artificial selection, human intervention has significantly increased egg production among modern chickens. This is a remarkable achievement.

Evolution Beyond Chickens and Eggs

This evolutionary saga extends beyond the realms of chickens and eggs, and it encompasses human interventions in breeding. These interventions are most prominently seen in the process of maximising milk yield in cows or cultivating particular characteristics in plants. A further illustration of the profound impact that human intervention has had is provided by the evolution of cultivated plants such as broccoli, cauliflower, and bananas through the process of artificial selection.

The Dawn of Agriculture

The story continues all the way up to the beginning of agriculture, with wheat serving as a prime example of the transformative impact that domestication has had on human societies for centuries. This profound contemplation delves into the ways in which the cultivation of wheat reimagined the human experience, leading to agricultural practices that brought about significant changes in both the environment and the way people lived their careers.

The Evolutionary Journey Continues

In conclusion, the chicken-or-egg paradox can be recast as a continuum of evolution, which is a reflection of gradual stages, the influence of artificial selection, and the intertwining of human influence in the process of shaping the species that surround us. This story develops into a complex web that not only encompasses the origins of chickens and eggs but also discusses the broader implications of human intervention and evolution across a variety of different domains of existence.

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“The Line project: Saudi Arabia’s Ambitious Mega City Project – Vision or Mirage?”


When it comes to big projects, Saudi Arabia has its sights set on one truly amazing project: The Line. This futuristic city, which is 500 metres tall and covers 170 kilometres, aims to transform urban living. The Line, which is expected to be completed in 2045 and could cost up to a trillion dollars, raises a number of concerns regarding technology, viability, and possible global effects.

The Context:

It’s important to understand Saudi Arabia’s broader background before analysing The Line. The country, well-known for its wide deserts and economy reliant on oil, is sincerely working to diversify. This is demonstrated by the Saudi Vision 2030 initiative, which seeks to change the economic environment of the nation. Part of this vision is NEOM, the smart city where The Line is located. Its purpose is to lead Saudi Arabia into a post-oil future.

The Concepts and Design:

The Line is more than just a city; it’s a straight marvel between two incredibly tall skyscrapers that are covered in outside mirrors. This architectural approach, which is evocative of the Arcology concept of the 1960s, aims to create an efficient and low-impact city. The fundamental idea is known as “Zero Gravity Urbanism,” which encourages three-dimensional mobility and a pedestrian-focused way of life. The city’s appeal is increased by the promise of 100% renewable energy, cutting-edge transit, and smooth artificial intelligence integration.

The attainable Advantages:

Given that The Line is close to the Red Sea and the Suez Canal, which handle 13% of world trade, supporters emphasise the hub’s potential as a trading hub. In addition, the developers guarantee a tiny, self-sufficient city with green areas, climate control, and convenient access to everyday needs. Furthermore, the possible economic diversification fits in with Saudi Arabia’s overarching objectives.

Technical challenges:

The vision is impressive, but there are questions about its technological viability. With speeds over 500 km/h, the proposed high-speed transport system pushes the boundaries of existing technology. Likewise, uncertainties are introduced by the building of 500-meter-tall mirrors and other unprecedented features. The viability of these ideas and whether current technologies can actually support such aspirations are questioned by sceptics.

Environmental Concerns:

Despite The Line’s claims of having little environmental effect, some contend that the construction of two 500-meter glass-covered towers is essentially carbon-intensive. The construction process alone could release 1.8 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide, or the equivalent of the UK’s emissions over four years, making the claim of sustainability incongruous with the massive resources needed for the project. Environmentalists are worried about how it will affect wildlife, particularly migratory birds.

Economic Viability and Foreign Investment:

The project’s enormous cost is one of its main obstacles. The project is financed by the Public Investment Fund of Saudi Arabia and is financially risky due to its reliance on oil revenues for economic stability. There are estimates that the initial $500 billion allocation may not be sufficient, resulting in an astounding $1 trillion cost. It is becoming more and more important to draw in foreign investment, but reports indicate that finding international business partners can be difficult.


In conclusion, The Line is stunning in its utopian vision, but it is still unclear how realistically achievable it will be. The fate of this ambitious project lies in its intersection with financial stability, technological feasibility, environmental responsibility, and public acceptance. Only then can it either become a shining example of progress or fade into the realm of unfulfilled dreams. The world is waiting to see if The Line turns into a game-changing reality or a mirage in the vast Saudi landscape as we watch this futuristic endeavour unfold.


What’s going on in GAZA: A Closer Examination of the Israel-Palestine Conflict


Two months have passed since the Israel-Palestine conflict broke out, sending Gaza into a terrifying humanitarian crisis. Since October 9th, Israel has enforced a complete embargo on Gaza, resulting in a grave situation. The already vulnerable population’s suffering has been exacerbated by the extreme shortages of food, medicine, water, and energy that have resulted from this.

The Human Cost:

Gaza’s civilian population is suffering greatly. There have been reports of over 2,800 Palestinian civilian deaths, with entire neighbourhoods reduced to ruins. Many thousands of people are still buried under the rubble and are taking refuge in overcrowded hospitals and schools. Humanitarian help is desperately needed in Gaza, as the United Nations agency UNRWA has declared an unprecedented human tragedy there.

Medical situation

Hospitals are struggling with resource shortages, including water and electricity. Mehmood Matar and other surgeons discuss the tremendous obstacles they encounter and stress the vital need for resources in order to save lives. The lives of dialysis and intensive care unit patients are at risk when the gasoline runs out.

Gaza: A Prison With A Dense Population

Gaza is one of the world’s most densely populated areas, with 2.3 million people living on a 365 km² narrow sliver of territory. Living conditions were appalling and inhabitants were constantly under Israeli monitoring even prior to the fighting. Children make up the majority of the population, which exacerbates the human tragedy since estimates suggest that women and children account for 60% of the casualties.

Escalating Crisis and Forced Evacuations:

Israel’s demand for the evacuation of the northern Gaza Strip, which resulted in the displacement of about 600,000 people, escalated the conflict. Concerns were voiced by UNRWA regarding the safety of vulnerable populations, such as elderly people, children, and pregnant women, who find it difficult to flee amidst the chaos. The humanitarian crisis is made worse by the targeting of shelters and hospitals.

International Reaction and Regional Escalation:

 Israel’s actions have been denounced by the international community, with the foreign minister of Norway finding the complete blockade intolerable. Humanitarian aid into Gaza has been demanded by the UN Secretary-General, who has emphasised that Hamas must release Israeli hostages unconditionally.

Hezbollah poses a serious threat as tensions in the region rise amid reports of clashes between Israel and Lebanon. There is a threat of a ground invasion, which could have negative effects on the already vulnerable area.Political Intrigue and Public Outcry:

Amidst the crisis, attention turns to Israel’s internal politics. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu faces corruption charges and accusations of fostering Hamas in the past. The Israeli public, disillusioned by the government’s handling of the conflict, expresses dissatisfaction through protests and plummeting approval ratings for Netanyahu.


International Reaction and Regional Escalation: Israel’s actions have been denounced by the international community, with the foreign minister of Norway finding the complete blockade intolerable. Humanitarian aid into Gaza has been demanded by the UN Secretary-General, who has emphasised that Hamas must release Israeli hostages unconditionally.

Hezbollah poses a serious threat as tensions in the region rise amid reports of clashes between Israel and Lebanon. There is a threat of a ground invasion, which could have negative effects on the already vulnerable area.

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کھجور کی بہترین فوائد

کھجور بہت مشہور پھل ہے اس کا رنگ سیاہ اور سرخی مائل ہوتا ہے ذائقہ میٹھا اور مزاج گرم تر ہے

غذا کی اہمیت

کھجور غذائی اہمیت اعتبار سے بڑا اہم ترین پھل ہے یہ تازہ حالت میں بھی ملتا ہے اور خشک حالت میں اسے چھوہارا کہتے ہیں، کھجور میں قدرتی شکر گلوکوز اور فرکوز کی شکل میں پائی جاتی ہے یہ شکر معدے میں جاتے ہی فوراً جذب ہو کر خون میں شامل ہو جاتی ہے اپنی اسی خصوصیت کی وجہ سے اسے گئے کی شکر سے بہتر سمجھا جاتا ہے اسے عام طور پر دودھ یا دودھ کے بغیر ہی کھاتے ہیں دودھ کے ساتھ کھانے سے اس کی غذائی افادیت مزید بڑھ جاتی ہے، صحرا کے لوگ اسے مکھن کے ساتھ استعمال کرتے ہیں اس مقصد کے لیے گٹھلی نکال کر اس میں مکھن بھر لیتےہیں۔

غذائی فوائد

کھجور کا ذکر دنیا کی تمام مقدس کتب میں آیا ہے، قرآن مجید میں تو خاص طور پر اس کا ذکر بیس دفعہ آیا ہے یعنی سورۃ البقرہ آیت نمبر 266، سورہ انعام آیت نمبر 100 ، آیت نمبر 142 سورۃ الرعد میں آیت نمبر 4 ، سورۃ النمل آیت نمبر 10.11 اور 67 سورۃ بنی اسرائیل آیت نمبر 90,91 آیت نمبر 24,25 ، سورۃ طہ آیت نمبر 71 سورة الشعر آیت نمبر 148 ، سورة یسین آیت نمبر 33,35 ، سورة ق آیت نمبر 10 ، سورة الحمد آيت نمبر 18,20، سورة رحمن آیت مبر 10,11,68 اور 69 سورۃ القمر آیت نمبر 18,20 ، الحاقہ آیت نمبر 16,7 اور سورۃ عبس میں آیت نمبر 24,32 نبی اکرم صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے بھی کھجور کی غذائی اور دوائی افادیت کا ذکر م سورۃ کہف آیت نمبر 32 سورة مريم

ایک اور موقع پر آپ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے فرمایا کہ جس گھر میں کھجور ہوگی اس گھر والے کبھی بھوکے نہیں رہیں گے ۔ ایک اور حدیث مبارکہ کے مطابق آپ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے فرمایا کہ عجوہ کھجور اور بیت المقدس کی مسجد کا گنبد دونوں جنت سے آئے ہیں۔آپ ﷺ کا فرمان ہے کہ جس نے صبح سات کھجور کھائیں، شام تک زہر کے اثر سے محفوظ رہے گا اور جس نے شام کو کھائیں وہ صبح تک حضرت ابو ہریرہ رضی اللہ عنہ کی روایت کے مطابق حضور اکرم صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے فرمایا عورتوں کے حیض کی کثرت کے لیےکھجور سے بہتر پھل اور حیض کے لیے شہد سے بہتر کوئی دوا نہیں ہے۔


کھجو قبض کشا پھل ہے۔ ریشہ دار پھل ہونے کی وجہ سے یہ معدے کی تزابیت کو دور کر کے اسے فعال بناتا ہے اور اجابت کھل کر ہوتی ہے اس مقصدکے لیے کھجوروں کو رات بھر پانی میں بھگودیں دیں اور صبح چھان کر پی لیں ۔

انتڑیوں کی خرابی

کھجور و انٹریوں کی خرابی کے لیے بھی کامیابی سے استعمال کیا جاتا ہے، کھجور کااعتدال کے ساتھ استعمال انتری کو غلیظ اور فاسد مادوں سے پاک کر دیتا ہے۔

دل کی کمزوری

کھجوروں کو دل کی طاقت کے لیے بھی بہت مفید سمجھا جاتا ہے اس مقصد کے لیے کھجور یا چھوہاروں کو رات بھر پانی میں بھگو دیں صبح کو گھٹلیاں نکال کر پھینک دیں اور کھجور ملے پانی کو پی لیں، ہیضے میں دو بار یہ عمل دہرائیں اس سے دل کی کمزوری ختم ہو جاتی ہے۔

قوت باہ کی کمزوری۔

کھجوروں اور چھوہاروں کو قوت باہ کی کمزوری کے لیے بھی کامیابی سے استعمال کیا جاتا ہے رات کو آٹھ دس چھوہارے بکری کے دودھ میں بھگو دیں اور صبح کو دودھ کے ساتھ پی لیں اگر اس میں تھوڑا سا شہد اور چٹکی بھر چھوٹی الائچی کاپاؤڈر مکس کر لیا جائے تو اس کی تاثیر اور بھی بڑھ جاتی ہے۔


کھجور خون صالح پیدا کر کے بدن کو موٹا کرتی ہے، جگر اور معدے کو طاقت بخشتی ہے۔ تازہ کھجور تپ دق کے مریضوں کے لیے مفید ہے۔ گردوں اور کمر کو مضبوط بناتی ہے۔ بخار کھانسی اور پیچش میں بہت مفید ثابت آور بھی ہے، قبض کشا ہونے کے ساتھ ساتھ پیشاب آور بھی ہے۔ کھجور کے مضر اثرات انار کے رس، روغن بادام اور خشخاش کے استعمال سے دور ہو جاتے ہیں ۔

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امرود کی بہترین فوائد

برصغیر پاک و ہند کا نہایت مشہور پھل ہے، یوں تو اس کی بہت سی قسمیں ہیں لیکن دوقسمیں زیادہ مشہور ہیں ایک اندر سے سرخ اور دوسری اندر سے سفید ہوتی ہے

پختہ امرود میٹھا معتدل اور قدرے حرارت پیدا کرتا ہے اس کے پتے درجہ دوم میں سرد اور خشک پھول درجہ اول میں گرم تر اس کی زیادتی معدے میں کا سبب بن سکتی ۔ ہے، کالی مرچ سونف اور نمک اس کے مضر اثرات اپھارا اور قولنج کا سب کی اصلاح کرتے ہیں۔

غذائی افادیت

معدے کے امراض

آنتوں کی صفائی

امرود کے استعمال سے آنتیں صاف ہو جاتی ہیں، بواسیر قبض کو دور کرتا ہے۔

ہاضمہ کیلئے

خود ہاضم ہوتا ہے اور دوسری غذاؤں کو ہضم کرنے میں مدد دیتا ہے۔

قبض کشا

امرود قبض کشا ہوتا ہے لیکن شرط یہ ہے کہ اسے کھانا کھانے کے بعد کھایاجائے اگر کھانا کھانے سے پہلے کھایا جائے تو قبض پیدا کرتا ہے۔

خون کی حدت میں مفید

امرود کے روزانہ استعمال سے خون کی حدت ختم ہو جاتی ہے، امرود کااعتدال کے ساتھ استعمال خون کو صاف کرتا اور طبیعت کو نرم کرتا ہے۔

گردہ اور مثانہ کی کمزوری

امرود کھانے سے گردے کی پتھری ٹوٹ کر نکل جاتی ہے، امرود کےاستعمال سے مثانے کی سوزش دور ہو جاتی ہے۔


اجوائن کے ساتھ استعمال

امرود کو دیسی اجوائن کے ساتھ استعمال کرنے سے آنکھوں کے گرد اندھیرا آنا اور سر چکر انا دور ہو جاتا ہے۔

زخموں کیلئے

امرود کے خشک پتوں کا سفوف زخموں کو ختم کرتے ہیں

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آم کی بہترین فوائد

آم کو پھلوں کا بادشاہ کہا جاتا ہے آم گرم ممالک کا مشہور پھل ہے، یہی وجہ ہے کہ اسے ایشیائی پھلوں کا بادشاہ کہتےہیں۔ غذا کے ساتھ ساتھ اسے گھریلو روا کا درجہ بھی حاصل ہے، یہ بھر پور گود سے والا رس بھرا پھل ہے، یہ عام طور پر سبز زود اور قدرے سرخ رنگوں میں ملتا ہے رنگوں کے علاوہ اس کی جسامت میں بھی خاصا فرق ہوتا ہے اس اور گودے کی طرح اس کی گٹھلیوں کا سائنسز بھی مختلف ہوتا ہے، اس کا شمار تناؤ پیڑوں میں ہوتا ہے۔

برصغیر پاک و ہند میں آم چار ہزار سال سے کاشت کیا جاتا ہے، ہندوؤں کی مشہور الہامی کتب ” ویدوی“ میں اسے کاشت یعنی بہشتی پھل کہا گیا ہے۔

بر صغیر پاک و ہند کے علاوہ اس وقت یہ پھل چین، بنگلہ دیش، فلپائن میکسیکو اور برازیل میں بکثرت ہوتا ہے پاک وہند میں اگر چہ اس کی لگ بھگ پانچ سو اقسام پائی جاتی ہے لیکن ان میں صرف 35 اقسام ہی کاشت کی جاتی ہیں۔

غذائی فوائد

آم کے پھل کو کچے سے لیکر پکنے تک قریباً ہر حالت میں استعمال کیا جاتا ہے، سبز یا کچے آم میں نشاستے کی بھر مقدار پائی جاتی ہے جو آہستہ آہستہ گلوکوز سکروز اور ماشوز میں تبدیل ہوتی رہتی ہے اور پختہ ہونے تک یہ تمام اجزاء مکمل ہو جاتے ہیں اور نشاستہ یکسر غائب ہو جاتا تا ۔ ہے، کچے آم میں پیکٹن وافر مقدار میں موجود ہوتی ہے لیکن گٹھلی مکمل ہونے پر یکسر ختم ہو جاتی ہے، خام یعنی کچے آم میں آگز بلک سرک میلک اور سکسا ٹنک ایسڈ ز خاصی مقدار میں موجود ہوتی ہے اسی لئے کچا آم کھٹا ہوتا ہے ایک سو گرام پختہ آم میں 74 غذائی مرارے ہوتے ہیں۔


کچے آم میں وٹامن سی وافر مقدار میں پائی جاتی ہے نیم پختہ یا پختہ آم اس میں کی مقدار خاصی کم ہو جاتی ہے، وٹامن سی کے علاوہ اس میں وٹامن بی اور نیاسمین بھی خاصی مقدار میں موجود ہوتی ہیں ، آم کی ہر قسم میں ان کی مقدار کمو بیش ہوتی ہے۔

پختہ آم غذائیت بخش اور مقوی ہوتا ہے اس میں شکر کی مقدار دیگر اجزاء کے مقابلے میں زیادہ ہوتی ہے شکر کے علاوہ اس میں ٹارٹرک ایسڈ اور میلک ایسڈ بھی پائی جاتی ہے یہ ترشے جسم کی نشوونما کے لیے بڑے مفید سمجھے جاتے ہیں، ان کی وجہ سے بدن میں نمکیات کا توازن برقرار رہتا ہے۔

طبی فوائد

دیگر پھلوں کی طرح آم بھی اپنے طبی فوائد کے اعتبار سے بڑی اہمیت رکھتا ہے خام اور پختہ یعنی دونوں حالتوں میں بے حد مفید ہے کچے آم میں چونکہ ایسڈ کی مقدار زیادہ ہوتی ہے اس لئے معدے اور انتڑیوں کے بہت سے امراض میں بہت مفید ثابت ہوتا ہے، کچے آم کا اچار بھی بنایا جاتا ہے اور مربہ بھی کچے آم کا چھلکا بھی بڑے کام کی شے ہے معدے کی لعاب دار جھلیوں کے لیے خاصا مفید سمجھا جاتا ہے آم کا اچار عام طور پر سرسوں یا رائی کے تیل سرکہ اور نمک سے تیار کیا جاتا ہے طبی اعتبار سے اس کا استعمال بہت کم مقدار میں کیا جانا چاہیے اس کی زیادتی معدے کے امراض کا باعث بنتی ہے جوڑوں کے درد گھٹیا گلے کی بیماریوں اور تیزابیت ایسی بیماریوں میں اس کا استعمال نقصان دہ ثابت ہوتا ہے

پختہ آم پیشاب اور قبض کشا قوت بخش اور وزن بڑھاتا ہے۔ دل کے پٹھوں کو طاقت دیتا ہے چہرے کی رنگت کو سنوارتا اور بھوک میں اضافہ کرتا ہے ہے ۔ے قدیم اطبا اور ویدوں کے بقول آم خون پیدا کرتا ہے گوشت میں اضافہ کرتا ۔ ہڈیوں کے گودے اور مادہ منویہ کو بڑھاتا ہے اسے جگر کے امراض میں بھی کامیابی کے ساتھ استعمال کیا جاتا ہے جن لوگوں کا وزن کم ہو ان کے لیے خصوصیت کے ساتھ مفید ہے جگر کے لیے مفید ثابت ہونے کے باوجود اس کی زیادتی جگر کے قدرتی فعل میں خلل ڈالتی ہے۔

کچے آم کے خواص

کچے آم کی سب سے بڑی خوبی یہ ہے کہ وہ انسان کو موسم گرمائی آگ برساتی ہوا سے محفوظ رکھتا ہے، گرمیوں کی تیز دھوپ میں اگر کسی کو لو لگ جائے تو کچے آم کو بھوبل یعنی گرم گرم راکھ میں دبا کر پکا لیا جائے اس کے بعد اسکے رس میں تھوڑی چینی ملا کر مریض کو پلا دیں اس سے لو کے اثرات ختم ہو جاتے ہیں، کچھے آم کو تھوڑے سے نمک کے ساتھ کھانے سے پیاس کو تسکین ملتی ہے علاوہ ازیں پینے کے ذریعے خارج ہونے والے فولاد اور نمک کی کمی پوری ہو جاتی ہے۔

صفراوی امراض

کچا آم پتے اور جگر کی صفراوی بیماریوں کے لیے بہت موثر ثابت ہوتا ہے کچے آم میں موجود ترشے ایسڈز صفراء کے اخراج کو بڑھا دیتے ہیں اور انتڑیوں سے زہریلے مواد کو خارج کر دیتے ہیں کچے آم کا خالی مرچوں اور شہد کے ساتھ روزانہ کھانے سے صفراوی امراض ختم ہو جاتے ہیں، خاص طور پر یرقان کے لیے اسے بے حد موثر سمجھا جاتا ہے، یہ جگہ کو طاقت بخشتا اور صحت مند رکھتا ہے۔

خون کی خرابیاں

کچا سبز آم خون کی اکثر خرابیوں میں مفید ثابت ہوتا اس کی وجہ یہ ہے کہ کچے آم میں وٹامن سی وافر مقدار میں پائی جاتی ہے یہ خون کی رگوں کو لچکدار بناتی ہے جس کی وجہ سے دوران خون میں کوئی رکاوٹ نہیں پڑتی، علاوہ ازیں یہ خون کے سرخ ذرات میں بھی اضافہ کرتا ہے، غذا میں شامل فولاد کو خون میں جذب کرتا ہے جسکی وجہ سے خون بہنے سے بچا رہتا ہے کچے آم میں یہ خوبی بھی ہے کہ ٹی بی، خون کی کمی پیچش اور ہیضہ کے خلاف جسم کی قوت مدافعت میں اضافہ کرتا ہے علاوہ ازیں مسوڑھوں سے خون بہنے کی بیماری کو بھی فائدہ پہنچاتا ہے پختہ وشیریں آم کےفوائد

امراض چشم

پختہ اور شیریں آم بینائی کی کمزوری کو دور کرتے ہیں خاص طور پر اندھراتا اور مرض جس میں رات کو کم دکھائی دیتا ہے کے لیے مفید ہیں، یہ مرض عام طور پر وٹامن اے کی کمی سے پیدا ہوتا ہے یہ بیماری زیادہ تر ان بچوں میں ہوتی ہے جنہیں غربت کی وجہ سے موزوں اور مناسب غذا میسر نہیں آتی، میٹھے آموں کا بکثرت استعمال اس بیماری سے چھٹکارا دلا دیتا ہے علاوہ ازیں یہ پھیل آنکھوں کو ایسی بیماریوں سے بھی محفوظ رکھتا ہے جو مریض کو مستقل طور پر اندھا بنا سکتی ہے۔ پختہ میٹھے آم آنکھوں کی جلن خارش اور بھینگے پن میں بھی بے حد مفید سمجھے جاتےہیں۔

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آلو بخاره کی بہترین فوائد

آلو بخارہ ابتدائی موسم گرما کا مشہور پھل ہےفارسی میں آلو بخارا، سندھی میں آلو بخارا اور عربی میں اجاص کہتے ہیں۔ پکا ہوا پھل میٹھا اور کم پختہ قدرے ترش ہوتا ہے، اس کا مزاج درجہ اول میں سرد اور دوم میں سردتر ہوتا ہے، یہی وجہ ہے کہ گرم مزاج والوں کو زیادہ مفید سمجھا جاتا ہے اس کی زیادتی معدے اور دماغ کو نقصان پہنچاتی ہے، عناب اور گل قند اس کی اصلاح کرتے ہیں علاوہ ازیں مصطکی بھی اس کا توڑ سمجھا جاتی ہے۔ اسے تازہ اور خشک دونوں صورتوں میں استعمال کرتے ہیں، سرد مزاج والوں کے لیے اس کے زیادہ سے زیادہ دس دانے اور گرم مزاج والوں کے لیے زیادہ سے زیادہ تیس دانے کافی سمجھے جاتے ہیں۔

طبی فوائد

سر درد کی شکایت

موسم گرما میں اکثر لوگوں کو سر درد کی شکایت ہو جاتی ہے جو آلو بخارہ کےاستعمال سے رفع ہو جاتی ہے۔

اجابت کی درستگی

آلو بخاره تسکین بخش ، صفرا کو خارج کرتا اور کھل کر اجابت لاتا ہے، رات ہوتے وقت اس کے پانچ تا دس دانے کھا لئے جائیں تو صبح کو اجابت صحیح ہوتی ہے۔

دماغ کو طاقت

دماغی محنت کرنے والوں کے لیے آلو بخارہ بے حد مفید سمجھا جاتا ہے، اس کامناسب حد تک استعمال دماغ کو طاقت دیتا ہے۔

بلڈ پریشر کی کمی

ہائی بلڈ پریشر کے مریضوں کو آلو بخارہ کا استعمال ضرور کرنا چاہیے، اس لئےکہ یہ خون کے جوش کو تسکین دے کر ہائی بلڈ پر یشر کو کم کرتا ہے۔

کھانسی کے لیے مفید

سرد تر ہونے کے باعث گرمیوں میں ہونیوالی کھانسی کے لیے مفید ثابت ہوتا ہے۔

دماغی بیماریوں کا علاج

آلو بخارا کا زیادہ استعمال اگر چہ معدے اور دماغ کو نقصان پہنچاتا ہے لیکن یہی پھل اگر دوا کے طور پر استعمال کیا جائے تو معدے اور دماغ کی اکثر بیماریوں کے لیے اکسیر کا درجہ رکھتا ہے اختیار اور معدہ بھوک کی کمی اور دماغی خشکی کو دور کرنے کے لیے آلو بخارے کے سات دانے اور املی تین تولہ لیکر انہیں رات کو سونف کے عرق یا پانی میں بھگو دیں صبح کو اچھی طرح مسل کر چھان لیں اور ذائقے کے مطابق اس میں شکر یا نمک شامل کر کے متواتر تین دن تک پیں اس سے معدہ بھی صاف ہو جائے گا اور بھوک بھی خوب لگے گی دماغ کی خشکی بھی دور ہو جائے گی۔

شوگر کے لیے مفید

جن لوگوں کو شوگر یا زیا بیطس کی بیماری ہو تو ترش آلو بخارے کا استعمالکریں بے حد مفید اور مجرب ہے۔

سرد پن کا خاتمہ

اگر آپ اسے جلدی بیماری میں استعمال کرنا چاہتے تو اس کے ساتھ شربت عناب بھی دن میں ایک بار ضرور استعمال کرنا چاہیے، اس سے نہ صرف اس کے سرد پن کی اصلاح ہو جاتی ہے بلکہ بیماری جلدی دور ہو جاتی ہے

یرقان سے بچاؤ

سبھی جانتے ہیں کہ مقالہ ایک نہایت موذی مرض سے، یرقان کو دور کرنےکے لیے آلو بخارہ بے حد مفید ثابت ہوا ہے خشک آلو بخارے کے آٹھ دس دانے ایک تولہ دو تولے املی کے ساتھ سر شام پانی میں بھگو دیں صبح نہار منہ گڑ کی شکر یا تھوڑا سا نمک ملا کر روزانہ استعمال کریں چند ہی روز میں برقان رفع ہو جائے گا۔

پتے کی پتھری کا خاتمہ

اس کے روزانہ استعمال سے پتے کی پتھری بھی نکل جاتی ہے، تازہ آلو بخارے کا موسم نہ ہو تو آپ اسے خشک حالت میں بھی استعمال کر سکتے ہیں ۔ اسا کاطریقہ وہی ہے جو دیگر امراض میں بتایا جا چکا ہے۔